Rule 26(a). Discovery methods
Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods: depositions upon oral examination or written questions; written interrogatories; production of documents or things or permission to enter upon land or other property, for inspection and other purposes; physical and mental examinations; and requests for admission.
Rule 26(b). Discovery scope and limits
Unless otherwise limited by order of the court in accordance with these rules, the scope of discovery is as follows:
(1) In General.
(A) Parties may obtain discovery regarding any matter, not privileged, which is relevant to the subject matter involved in the pending action, whether it relates to the claim or defense of the party seeking discovery or to the claim or defense of any other party, including the existence, description, nature, custody, condition and location of any books, documents, or other tangible things and the identity and location of persons having knowledge of any discoverable matter. It is not ground for objection that the information sought will be inadmissible at the trial if the information sought appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence.
(B) A party need not provide discovery of electronically stored information from sources that the party identifies as not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or expense. On motion to compel discovery or for a protective order, the party from whom discovery is sought must show that the information is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or expense. If that showing is made, the court may nonetheless order disclosure or discovery from such sources if the requesting party shows good cause considering the limitations in the final paragraph of subsection (b)(1) of this Rule. The court may specify conditions for the disclosure or discovery.
(C) The frequency or extent of use of the discovery methods set forth in subdivision (a) may be limited by the court if it determines that: (i) the discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or duplicative, or obtainable from some other source that is either more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive; (ii) the party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity by discovery in the action to obtain the information sought; or (iii) the discovery is unduly burdensome or expensive, given the needs of the case, the amount in controversy, limitations on the parties’ resources, and the importance of the issues at stake in the litigation. The court may act upon its own initiative after reasonable notice or pursuant to a motion under subdivision (c).
(2) Insurance agreements. A party may obtain discovery of the existence and contents of any insurance agreement under which any person carrying on an insurance business may be liable to satisfy part or all of a judgment which may be entered in the action or to indemnify or reimburse for payments made to satisfy the judgment. Information concerning the insurance agreement is not by reason of disclosure admissible in evidence at trial. For purposes of this paragraph, an application for insurance shall not be treated as part of an insurance agreement.
(3) Trial preparation: Materials. Subject to the provisions of subdivision (b)(4) of this rule, a party may obtain discovery of documents and tangible things otherwise discoverable under subdivision (b)(1) of this rule and prepared in anticipation of litigation or for trial by or for another party or by or for that other party’s representative (including the other party’s attorney, consultant, surety, indemnitor, insurer or agent) only upon a showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials in the preparation of the party’s case and that the party is unable without undue hardship to obtain the substantial equivalent of the materials by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the required showing has been made, the court shall protect against disclosure of the mental impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party concerning the litigation.
A party may obtain without the required showing a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that party. Upon request, a person not a party may obtain without the required showing a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that person. If the request is refused, the person may move for a court order. The provisions of Rule 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion. For purposes of this paragraph, a statement previously made is (A) a written statement signed or otherwise adopted or approved by the person making it, or (B) a stenographic, mechanical, electrical, or other recording, or a transcription thereof, which is a substantially verbatim recital of an oral statement by the person making it and contemporaneously recorded.
(4) Trial Preparation: Experts.
(A) A party may depose any person who has been identified as an expert whose opinions may be presented at trial.
(B) A party may through interrogatories or by deposition discover facts known or opinions held by an expert who has been retained or specially employed by another party in anticipation of litigation or preparation for trial and who is not expected to be called as a witness at trial, only as provided in Rule 35(b) or upon a showing of exceptional circumstances under which it is impracticable for the party seeking discovery to obtain facts or opinions on the same subject by other means.
(C) Unless manifest injustice would result, (i) the court shall require that the party seeking discovery pay the expert a reasonable fee for time spent in responding to discovery under subdivisions (b)(4)(A) and (b)(4)(B) of this rule; and (ii) with respect to discovery obtained under subdivision (b)(4)(B) of this rule the court shall require the party seeking discovery to pay the other party a fair portion of the fees and expenses reasonably incurred by the latter party in obtaining facts and opinions from the expert.
(D) In all cases including medical malpractice cases each side shall presumptively be entitled to only one independent expert on an issue, except upon a showing of good cause. Where there are multiple parties on a side and the parties cannot agree as to which independent expert will be called on an issue, the court shall designate the independent expert to be called or, upon the showing of good cause, may allow more than one independent expert to be called.
In medical malpractice cases, each party shall presumptively be entitled to only one standard-of-care expert. A defendant may testify on the issue of that defendant’s standard-of-care in addition to that defendant’s independent expert witness and the court shall not be required to allow the plaintiff an additional expert witness on the issue of the standard-of-care.
(5) Non-party at Fault. Any party who alleges, pursuant to A.R.S. § 12-2506(B), that a person or entity not currently or formerly named as a party was wholly or partially at fault in causing any personal injury, property damage or wrongful death for which damages are sought in the action shall provide the identity, location, and the facts supporting the claimed liability of such non-party within one hundred fifty (150) days after the filing of that party’s answer. The trier of fact shall not be permitted to allocate or apportion any percentage of fault to any non-party whose identity is not disclosed in accordance with the requirements of this subsection except upon written agreement of the parties or upon motion establishing good cause, reasonable diligence, and lack of unfair prejudice to other parties.
Rule 26(c). Protective orders
(1) Subject to paragraph (2) of this rule, upon motion by a party or by the person from whom discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the court in which the action is pending or alternatively, on matters relating to a deposition, the court in the county where the deposition is to be taken, may make any order which justice requires to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following: (1) that the discovery not be had; (2) that the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place; (3) that the discovery may be had only by a method of discovery other than that selected by the party seeking discovery; (4) that certain matters not be inquired into, or that the scope of the discovery be limited to certain matters; (5) that discovery be conducted with no one present except persons designated by the court; (6) that a deposition after being sealed be opened only by order of the court; (7) that a trade secret or other confidential research, development, or commercial information not be disclosed or be disclosed only in a designated way; (8) that the parties simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed by the court. If the motion for a protective order is denied in whole or in part, the court may, on such terms and conditions as are just, order that any party or person provide or permit discovery. The provisions of Rule 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.
(2) Before entering an order in any way restricting a party or person from disclosing information or materials produced in discovery to a person who is not a party to the litigation in which the information or materials are being discovered or denying an intervener’s request for access to such discovery materials, a court shall direct: (a) the party seeking confidentiality to show why a confidentiality order should be entered or continued; and (b) the party or intervener opposing confidentiality to show why a confidentiality order should be denied in whole or part, modified or vacated. The burden of showing good cause for an order shall remain with the the party seeking confidentiality. The court shall then make findings of fact concerning any relevant factors, including but not limited to: (i) any party’s need to maintain the confidentiality of such information or materials; (ii) any nonparty’s or intervener’s need to obtain access to such information or materials; and (iii) any possible risk to the public health, safety or financial welfare to which such information or materials may relate or reveal. Any order restricting release of such information or materials to nonparties or interveners shall use the least restrictive means to maintain any needed confidentiality. No such findings of fact are needed where the parties have stipulated to such an order or where a motion to intervene and to obtain access to materials subject to a confidentiality order are not opposed.
Rule 26(d). Sequence and timing of discovery
Unless the court upon motion, for the convenience of parties and witnesses and in the interests of justice, orders otherwise, methods of discovery may be used in any sequence and the fact that a party is conducting discovery, whether by deposition or otherwise, shall not operate to delay any other party’s discovery.
Rule 26(e). Supplementation of responses
Except as provided in Rule 26.1 a party who has responded to a request for discovery with a response that was complete when made is under no duty to supplement the response to include information thereafter acquired, except as follows:
(1) A party is under a duty seasonably to supplement the response with respect to any question directly addressed to (A) the identity and location of persons having knowledge of discoverable matters, (B) the identity of each person expected to be called as an expert witness at trial, the subject matter on which the person is expected to testify and the substance of the person’s testimony, (C) the identity of any other person expected to be called as a witness at trial and (D) the identity, location and the facts supporting the liability of any nonparty who is claimed to be wholly or partially at fault in causing any personal injury, property damage or wrongful death, pursuant to A.R.S. § 12-2506(B) (as amended). A party shall supplement responses with respect to any question directly addressed to (B), ( C) or (D) prior to sixty (60) days before the date of trial. Any witness not identified in accordance with this Rule shall not be permitted to testify except for good cause shown or upon written agreement of the parties. The trier of fact shall not be permitted to allocate or apportion any percentage of fault to any nonparty whose identity is not disclosed in accordance with subpart (D) of this rule except for good cause shown or upon written agreement of the parties.
(2) A party is under a duty seasonably to amend a prior response if the party obtains information upon the basis of which (A) the party knows that the response was incorrect when made, or (B) the party knows that the response though correct when made is no longer true and the circumstances are such that a failure to amend the response is in substance a knowing concealment.
(3) A duty to supplement responses may be imposed by order of the court, agreement of the parties, or at any time prior to trial through new requests for supplementation of prior responses.
Rule 26(f). Discovery requests, responses, objections and sanctions
The court shall assess an appropriate sanction including any order under Rule 16(i) against any party or attorney who has engaged in unreasonable, groundless, abusive or obstructionist conduct.
Rule 26(g). Discovery motions
No discovery motion will be considered or scheduled unless a separate statement of moving counsel is attached thereto certifying that, after personal consultation and good faith efforts to do so, counsel have been unable to satisfactorily resolve the matter.
Rule 26(h). Deleted. Effective Nov. 1, 1970